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I miss you, I love you, I`m sorry and …I hate the political ORANGE! Go Violet!!!

Looking for an introduction… but I`m too tired. Looking for you my darling… but you are gone for the night… I overslept again, I`m sorry and sad. You should have called, I wish you could have stayed a little bit longer… 5 minutes and we would have been 2gheter. It has been a tired-full week… starting with few night with just 2-3 hours of sleep… the stress at job… and today the renewed monthly subscription at the gym involving the physical effort at the gym took all of my resources… so I have slept a little to much… and sorry seams to be the right word… I miss you, I love you and I`m SORRY…

Another thing I`m sorry is that I must use space for orange… I like the fruit but I hate the color… the political part of the color, that is. The only reason that I wear violet last Friday… NOBASESCU DAY! I`m waiting for the NOBASESCU country… Let`s hope an pray for this… Till than I`ll share some fact`s about the sweet fruit…

4th day: Orange… or Chinese apple?

An orange—specifically, the sweet orange—is the citrus Citrus ×​ sinensis (syn. Citrus aurantium L. var. dulcis L., or Citrus aurantium Risso) and its fruit. The orange is a hybrid of ancient cultivated origin, possibly between pomelo (Citrus maxima) and tangerine (Citrus reticulata). It is a small flowering tree growing to about 10 m tall with evergreen leaves, which are arranged alternately, of ovate shape with crenulate margins and 4–10 cm long. The orange fruit is a hesperidium, a type of berry.

Oranges originated in Southeast Asia. The fruit of Citrus sinensis is called sweet orange to distinguish it from Citrus aurantium, the bitter orange. The name is thought to ultimately derive from the Sanskrit for the orange tree, with its final form developing after passing through numerous intermediate languages.

In a number of languages, it is known as a „Chinese apple” (e.g. Dutch Sinaasappel, „China’s apple”).

Fruit

All citrus trees are of the single genus, Citrus, and remain largely interbreedable; that is, there is only one „superspecies” which includes grapefruits, lemons, limes, and oranges. Nevertheless, names have been given to the various members of the genus, oranges often being referred to as Citrus sinensis and Citrus aurantium. Fruits of all members of the genus Citrus are considered berries because they have many seeds, are fleshy and soft, and derive from a single ovary. An orange seed is called a pip. The white thread-like material attached to the inside of the peel is called pith.

Varieties

Blood orange

Blood oranges are a natural variety of C. sinensis derived from abnormal pigmentation of the fruit, that gives its pulp a streaking red colour. The juice produced from such oranges is often dark burgundy, hence reminiscent of blood. Original blood oranges were first discovered and cultivated in the 15th century in Sicily, however since then their cultivation became worldwide, and most blood oranges today are hybrids.

The fruit has found a niche as an interesting ingredient variation on traditional Seville marmalade, with its striking red streaks and distinct flavour. The scarlet navel is a variety with the same dual-fruit mutation as the navel orange.

Navel orange

A single mutation in 1820 in an orchard of sweet oranges planted at a monastery in Brazil yielded the navel orange, also known as the Washington, Riverside, or Bahia navel. The mutation causes the orange to develop a second orange at the base of the original fruit, opposite the stem, as a conjoined twin in a set of smaller segments embedded within the peel of the larger orange. From the outside, it looks similar to the human navel, hence its name.

Because the mutation left the fruit seedless, and therefore sterile, the only means available to cultivate more of this new variety is to graft cuttings onto other varieties of citrus tree. Two such cuttings of the original tree were transplanted to Riverside, California in 1870, which eventually led to worldwide popularity.

Today, navel oranges continue to be produced via cutting and grafting. This does not allow for the usual selective breeding methodologies, and so not only do the navel oranges of today have exactly the same genetic makeup as the original tree, and are therefore clones, all navel oranges can be considered to be the fruit of that single over-a-century-old tree. This is similar to the common yellow seedless banana, the Cavendish. On rare occasions, however, further mutations can lead to new varieties.

Persian orange

The Persian orange, grown widely in southern Europe after its introduction to Italy in the 11th century, was bitter. Sweet oranges brought to Europe in the 15th century from India by Portuguese traders quickly displaced the bitter, and are now the most common variety of orange cultivated. The sweet orange will grow to different sizes and colours according to local conditions, most commonly with ten carpels, or segments, inside.

Some South East Indo-European tongues name the orange after Portugal, which was formerly the main source of imports of sweet oranges. Examples are Bulgarian portokal [портокал], Greek portokali [πορτοκάλι], Persian porteqal [پرتقال], Albanian „portokall”, Macedonian portokal [портокал], and Romanian portocală. Also in South Italian dialects (Neapolitan), orange is named portogallo or purtualle, literally „the Portuguese one”. Related names can also be found in other languages: Turkish Portakal, Arabic al-burtuqal [البرتقال], Amharic birtukan, and Georgian phortokhali.

Portuguese, Spanish, Arab, and Dutch sailors planted citrus trees along trade routes to prevent scurvy. On his second voyage in 1493, Christopher Columbus brought the seeds of oranges, lemons and citrons to Haiti and the Caribbean. They were introduced in Florida (along with lemons) in 1513 by Spanish explorer Juan Ponce de León, and were introduced to Hawaii in 1792.

Valencia orange

The Valencia or Murcia orange is one of the sweet oranges used for juice extraction. It is a late-season fruit, and therefore a popular variety when the navel oranges are out of season. For this reason, the orange was chosen to be the official mascot of the 1982 FIFA World Cup, which was held in Spain. The mascot was called „Naranjito” („little orange”), and wore the colours of the Spanish football team uniform.

Acidity

Like all citrus fruits, the orange is acidic, with a pH level of around 2.5-3; depending on the age, size and variety of the fruit. Although this is not, on average, as strong as the lemon, it is still quite acidic on the pH scale – as acidic as household vinegar.

Growing

Oranges can be grown, outdoors in warmer climates, and indoors in cooler climates. Oranges, like most citrus plants will not do well unless kept between 15.5°C – 29°C. Orange trees grown from the seeds of a store bought fruit may not produce fruit, and any fruit that is produced may be different than the parent fruit, due to modern techniques of hybridization. To grow the seed of a store bought orange, one must not let the seed dry out (an approach used for many citrus plants). One method is to put the seed(s) between the halves of a damp paper towel until the seed germinates, and then plant it. Many just plant it straight into the soil making sure to water it with regularity. Oranges require a huge amount of water and the citrus industry in the Middle East is a contributing factor to the desiccation of the region.

Nutritional Value

Orange, raw, Florida Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz) Energy 192 kJ (46 kcal) Carbohydrates 11.54 g Sugars 9.14 g Dietary fiber 2.4 g Fat 0.21 g Protein 0.70 g Thiamine (Vit. B1) 0.100 mg (8%) Riboflavin (Vit. B2) 0.040 mg (3%) Niacin (Vit. B3) 0.400 mg (3%) Pantothenic acid (B5) 0.250 mg (5%) Vitamin B6 0.051 mg (4%) Folate (Vit. B9) 17 μg (4%) Vitamin C 45 mg (75%) Calcium 43 mg (4%) Iron 0.09 mg (1%) Magnesium 10 mg (3%) Phosphorus 12 mg (2%) Potassium 169 mg (4%) Zinc 0.08 mg (1%) Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults.
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